IPv4 Address vs IPv6 Address

Following table lists all differences between Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) comprehensively

IPv4 AddressIPv6 Address
String of 32 bits are used to represent IPv4 addressString of 128 bits are used to represent IPv6 address
Total number of addresses: 2 ^ 32 = 4294967296Total number of address: 2 ^ 128 = 340282366920938463463374607431768211456
32 bits are grouped into four 8 bits. Each group is called octet 128 bits are grouped into eight 16 bits. Each group is called quartet. 128 bigs grouped by 16 bits forming 8 quartets
Represented as 12 decimal numbers, each octet separated by dot (.)
Ex: 192.169.2.183
Represented as 32 hexadecimal numbers, each quartet separated by colon (:)
Ex: 32B0:32AC:A::82:AF/60
Each octet can represent values in range 0 to 255 inclusive Each quartet can represent values in range 0 to 65535 inclusive
Each octet is separated by dot(.) in IPv4 dotted decimal representation Each quartet is separated by colon(:)
In sbunetting, IP address is logically divided into two parts called network part and host part also called routing(or network) prefix and host identifier respectively In subnetting, IP address is logically divided into two parts called prefix part and Host part (interface identifier )

These two parts are also referred as Global Routing Prefix (Network Prefix) and Interface Identifier
32 bit IP address is comprised of networkd id and host id128 bit IP address is comprised of prefix and interface identifier
Different blocks of IP addresses reserved for private networks called private IP address
Blocks:
192.168.0.0/16 — 192.168.255.255
172.16.0.0/12. — 192.31.255.255
10.0.0.0/8. — 10.255.255.255
Different blocks of IP addresses reserved for private networks called unique locals addresses (ULAs)
IP address block 169.254.0.0/16 is reserved for link-local addressingIP address block fe80::/10 is reserved for link-local addressing.
subnetmask or netmask describes number of bits in network portion of addressprefix length describes number bits in the network portion of address
DHCPv6 server is need for DHCP. There are two types of DHCPv6. Stateful DHCPv6 and Stateless DHCPv6
Every interface receives link-local automatically address along with it’s static or dynamic address assigned
Loopback IP address:- 127.0.0.1Loopback IP address:- ::1
Subnet is configured by giving subnet mask in dotted decimal formatSubnet is configured by giving prefix length
Multiple addresses can be assigned to interface but there will be only one primary address There is no concept of secondary addresses. All addresses assigned to NIC are primary addresses.
There are no rules to abbreviate IPv4 addressIPv6 address can be abbreviated to represent it using shorthand notation for convenience
Default route address is 0.0.0.0/0Default route address in IPv6 is ::/0
Types of addresses
Public IP Address, Private IP addresses and Link Local IP address
Global Unicast Address, Unique Local, Link Local

Global Unicast Address – Routable on Internet
Unique Local – Internally and not routable on Internet
Link Local – Not routable internally or externally
Link Local Address that NICs assign itself when they can’t acquire IP using Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
169.254.0.0/16 (169.254.0.0 – 169.254.255.255)

Subnet mask or netmask represents the dividing line between network prefix and rest field (host identifier)

Link-local addresses are not routable link general IP address. It is special address that network interface will get assigned using mechanism called Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIP) developed by Microsoft for IPv4 , if it is failed to get IP address through either static or DHCP . Using this IP peer-to-peer connection is possible to which host is connected.

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neotam
Naveen T aka neotam. Programming language agnostic, Software architect, Python expert, Networking & DevOps engineer & consultant with 7+ years of experience in creating serious web applications, real time event-driven non blocking applications and database driven applications ranging from small scale to enterprise grade. website
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